Anesthesiologists are the hidden heroes of a successful operation and the most important part of the operating room team. The word anesthesia means numbness and lack of sensation. The drugs used to prevent the patient from feeling pain during surgery are determined and administered by an anesthesiologist. It is also the most important responsibility of the anesthesiologist to minimize some of the negative effects of anesthesia on the human body and ensure that the patient wakes up after the operation without his/her vital functions affected. Anesthesia and reanimation physicians do their residency training in anesthesia and reanimation after receiving medical training. During operations, anesthesia technicians, who have received special training, help the anesthesiologist.
Some of the areas for which anesthesiologists are responsible;
Evaluating and preparing the patient before the operation, informing the patients and their relatives about anesthesia options and possible complications.
Before the operation, deciding on the anesthesia option suitable for the general health condition of the patient, ensuring the appropriate position for the operation to be performed and ensuring that the patient is put to sleep safely.
Ensuring that the patient stays at the appropriate anesthesia depth during the operation, and monitoring vital functions, fluid and blood needs, and temperature status.
Ending anesthesia at the end of the surgery and evaluating the breathing, consciousness and general condition of the awakened patients.
Evaluating the condition of patients in pain and palliative units.
What are the types of anesthesia?
Anesthesia has been applied for approximately 150 years in surgeries. Developments in the field of medicine in recent years have also been reflected in anesthesiology. Today, there are four different types of anesthesia that suppress nerve cells. Types of anesthesia are general anesthesia, local anesthesia, regional anesthesia and sedation. The anesthesia method to be applied is decided on by examining the type and duration of the operation and the general health status of the patient.
General anesthesia means that the patient is unconscious and is generally applied in operations that are planned to take longer. In general anesthesia, agents called general anesthetics are used. The aim of general anesthesia is that the patient loses consciousness and does not feel any pain during the operation. Volatile drugs, called inhalation anesthetics, introduced by respiration reach the bloodstream through the lungs. Drugs given intravenously are called intravenous drugs and mostly both methods are used together. The anesthesiologist decides on the drug combinations to be used by considering the condition of the patient, the operation to be performed and many different factors. The anesthesiologist observes the patient during the operation and can increase or decrease the medications according to the need. General anesthesia consists of three stages, which are defined as induction (starting anesthesia application) , maintanence (continuation of anesthesia) and recovery (waking up, coming out of anesthesia).
Local anesthesia is the process of numbing only the area where the intervention is performed in minor surgical procedures. The physician who will perform the operation or the anesthesiologist can apply local anesthesia according to the procedure to be applied and the general condition of the patient. It is usually applied with anesthetics injected under the skin. In local anesthesia, the patient is conscious but does not feel pain associated with the operation. It is generally preferred by dentists and in small operations applied to the eyes, ears and nose.
Regional anesthesia is similar to local anesthesia. Regional anesthesia is the numbing of a part of the body. Regional anesthesia is frequently applied in orthopedics and urology departments, most often during deliveries. There are spinal, epidural and nerve block types of regional anesthesia. According to the area to be anesthetized, it is applied by injecting from parts such as armpits, groin, back of the knee.
Sedation, which means to calm down, is a state of sleep in which all the reflexes of the patient are maintained with sedative drugs and the depth of which can be adjusted in a controlled manner. Sedation is a method frequently used by dentists in particular.